Community Language Learning
Community words learning (CLL) is a kind of language learning strategy. The founder for CLL methodology was Charles Curran, an American Jesuit priest who was simply working as the Counseling Learning. CLL play a fundamental role for learners who will be learning English as their second vocabulary. It is a good example of an ground breaking model that takes the value of learning process into consideration. Learning new languages might be challenging for pupils who are not familiar with the language because they will face difficulty in understanding the language that they are learning. A number of the learners will feel anxious if they are talking using other languages. They might feel that they happen to be embarrassing themselves when they are communicating with the native speakers. Therefore, Curran was most widely known for his extensive analyses on adult learning. He previously addressed some issues on affective domain that will be related to adult learners if they are learning innovative languages.
Technique that’s applied in CLL technique is that teachers act as the dialect counselor or translator during words learning, while the students will be the client in the learning process. Through the discussion or lesson, college students sit down in a circle as the teacher sits beyond your circle. Sitting down in the type of circle gives the students the impression ownership and come to feel included. The circle really helps to build community. It provides a non-competitive, a sense of involvement and a feeling of equality ambiance for the students. Students will feel even more comfortable with their peers which will make them try to use the language . When the school starts, everyone is encouraged to know each other well. This will generate a nice and close class identification. Students will listen obviously when other learners are talking. They’ll enjoy the probability to be imaginative and can direct their answers quickly when they are resting in the type of a circle. It is because if they are sitting together, learners can see one another faces clearly, have attention contact and hear the other person well. They’ll feel secure and safe to speak out their thoughts and will have debates and discussions among themselves.
Interpersonal relationship among college students and teachers are very important. Teachers have to treat the students rather so that college students will lower their protective behavior and will start communicating interpersonally. Learners will feel free to talk about their encounters or introduce themselves utilizing their mother tongue. Teachers need to listen cautiously to the students’ conversation and translate the discussion into English. Then, college students will follow and imitate teachers’ pronunciation and sentence structures again during the discussion. Students will then repeat what have already been stated by the teachers in front of the class. So, to make the learning process easier, pupils should make sure that they make basic and short phrases around five to six text if they are talking within their mother tongue. So, maybe the teachers can control or end the learners from talking too much time. It is because when teachers translate it in English, it will be possible for the students to understand and imitate the pronunciation and sentences very easily. When it is the students’ switch to speak in target language directly to the group, teachers can correct students’ grammatical mistake and mispronunciation. But teachers must make sure that they are not over carrying it out.
Even although teachers are not taking part or entail in the conversation, they still play an essential role in the training process. Teachers should not always correct the learners’ pronunciation as this will discourage them to keep learning and have an impact on the students’ interest in learning. It will bring about frustration. The teacher shouldn’t control the conversation in CLL, but let college students talk whatever they desires (Rardin et al., 1988). What was important is that instructor should ensure that their students are usually able to speak in a manner that is not hard for others to comprehend and not necessarily like a native speaker. Scaffolding can be provided for the learners if students are still unable to pronounce or speak accurately. Set up an individual tutorial for the selected students by providing them extra classes and show them again the correct usage of English will sooner or later support them. Their learning progress is quite slow, but teachers’ worried and mutual trust will help them to understand the language gradually. Mutual trust between your teachers and the students should be maintained throughout the discussion. Students will feel convenient when they are sharing their views and thoughts. This will sooner or later motivate students to learn new languages and enhance their confident when speaking in front the group. In a non-defensive relationship learners have the ability to build relationships and personalize the materials (Rardin, Tranel, Tirone and Green, 1988).
This method is not actually relevant in a Malaysian classroom. Malaysia is definitely a multiracial region that includes Malay, Chinese, Indian and others. Many people are put beneath the same education program, where all races will be learning in the same class. When students are studying in the course, they even now prefer to use words that they feel more comfortable and familiar to talk to others. Because of this, there will be some language variations between pupils. Everyone in the class uses different mom tongue and like to use language that they feel more comfortable and acquainted with when interacting with others. This is why CLL is not actually applicable in Malaysian classrooms that contain multiracial students. In CLL teaching techniques, most of the connection and talking will be in mom tongue. Students from diverse races will face problems in understanding their friend’s conversation which will actually cause some confusion in pupils. During the discussion, college students’ initiative to communicate will be less. It is because they will feel overlooked or awkward to speak with their mother tongue where most of their good friends cannot understand.
Teachers will also have to realize that their students result from various backgrounds and will face many problems when learning fresh languages. For example, pupils who happen to be learning English as their second words, while their mom tongue is usually Mandarin. Mandarin grammar is much simpler if compared to English. Pupils will face problems in learning English because Mandarin has got little if any bound morphology and there happen to be no grammatical paradigms to memorize. Each phrase has a fixed and single variety and verbs do not consider prefixes or suffixes showing the tense or the person. However it differs for English. When teaching in English classes, CLL strategy is not applicable also. Teachers who would like to apply this process in classroom have to have strong understanding of languages where they could explain and differentiate the uses and function of selected languages. Translation from mother tongue to focus on language is not easy for teachers because they have to concern about the complicated grammar rules and sentence structures of the words. When the teachers happen to be translating to the mark language, they need to ensure that the sentence structures happen to be following the grammar rules and set up of syntax of the mark language. Clear explanation must be made by teachers in order that students can know how sentences
are formed. They need to be able to clarify and give examples to learners that not every sentence could be translated directly to the prospective language. That is why teachers must have strong knowledge of every function of several languages.
The Grammar Translation Technique (GTL) is another approach that can be utilised by teachers when teaching second language learners. This method was created in the 19th hundred years, when moves were made to bring foreign- dialect learning into institution curriculum. Furthermore, grammar translation technique emerged when persons from the western environment wanted to uncover Latin and Greek. It focuses on grammatical guidelines, memorization of vocabulary, translation of text and doing excises. Students were given explanation using their mother tongues language.
There are some limitations for the Grammar Translation method. One of the factors is that the course is conducted using mother tongue, with little usage of the target language. For that reason, college students prefer to communicate using mom tongue as everyone in the course will know very well what they are trying to convey. Unfortunately, this won’t help college students who are struggling to obtain speaking skills and will not help in developing and improving their proficiency in focus on language. Students will never be able to speak effectively using correct grammar guidelines and pronunciation because they can not practice how exactly to speak effectively using target language. Other than that, students won’t have the initiative to communicate in using focus on language, many of them even feel shy and won’t make an effort to speak in target dialect because they’re afraid to make mistakes when talking to others.
Vocabulary can be taught in the sort of isolated words list. The learners are taught about the literal meaning of the term, nevertheless they pay less attention to the way that it is used. For instance, they only understand the literal meaning of the term ‘happy’, but they do not know how to apply it effectively in sentences. They’ll construct ‘her eye shone with happy’ instead of ‘her eyes shone with happiness’. Despite the fact that they find out about the switch in the type of the word according to the grammatical function in the sentence, however the application is less. Besides that, they also discover ways to translate sentences from their mother tongue to target language. Even though this can help the students to understand the basic understanding of English such as simple vocabulary and grammar, even so, the circumstances of learning second words will vary. Sometimes, certain language cannot be translated to various other languages without considering grammar rules. For instance, in Malay terminology ‘Jangan main main’, however when it is translated to English it’ll become ‘you usually do not play take up’ . The grammar rules and sentence structures happen to be correct but it bears illogical meaning to the sentence.
Furthermore, GTL is focuses on reading and writing. That is parallel to Malaysia curriculum specification which can be emphasizes on those expertise. The curriculum specification outlines the communicative teaching approach to English predicated on the integration of the four key skills: reading, writing, hearing and speaking (Malaysian Education Ministry, 1989). The curriculum specification in Malaysian universities is supposed to place emphasis on oral activities that could help college students to use English words effectively within their daily connection and relate the vocabulary to the environment. However, regarding implementation, the classroom scenario is far from what is envisioned by the Ministry Classroom. Teaching often depends on reading comprehension, producing, grammar and vocabulary skills. Thus largely neglecting hearing and speaking skills that are not granted emphasize in the classroom (Pandian, 2002).
Although GTL has its advantages, however there are some lacking elements in this method. Communicative competence aren’t really emphasizes in this technique. This is because the teaching process is solely based on books only. Drilling the learners with continuous grammatical exercises specifically at the primary school level is a norm in Malaysia classroom. Drilling training will help the learners to have got deeper knowledge of grammar rules writing so that they are able to correct their errors and can not repeat the same blunders when writing. Despite the fact that the drilling exercises way has some positive aspects in language teaching, it is however will not help the students to understand the language in the long run. Often, college students from the rural areas cannot speak and produce competently in English after they have graduated from huge schools. According to (Maarof et al., 2003; David & Govindasamy; 2005), ninety-four percent of students will be unemployed after graduates in Malaysia due to their insufficient competency in English language, particularly in using English for oral business communication.
GTM is pertinent to Malaysia classroom for students who happen to be learning essay editor free English as their second words as it focuses on translation method. Translation from L1 to L2 is important in learning second words. This is because the students need to think within their mother tongue first ahead of deciding on their target language. Based on the curriculum technical specs, grammar is taught according to stages by stages. Students will study from simple words to more complex words. First, it starts with a term list, teachers are supposed or necessary to translate the term list into students’ indigenous language in order that students can understand. The reason being Malaysia school is divided into SK (Sekolah Kebangsaan), SJKC (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan Cina), and SJKT(Sekolah Kebangsaan Tamil).
This does apply in Malaysia classroom because everyone in the school understands Malay words in SK institution, Mandarin in SJKC and Tamil Vocabulary in SJKT. It will be far easier for the teachers to translate words and phrases from native language to focus on language as all of the learners understand the same indigenous language.
This method as well plays a fundamental role for the slow learners or learners who are trying to learn brand-new languages. Teachers can translate thoughts by text to them using their mother tongue so that can understand more. They will be in a position to acquire vocabulary and appreciate the meaning of content in context. Furthermore, in addition they can recognize certain text which can be applied in different context and scenario. When students have strong knowledge of the application of this is of words, they can slowly figure out how to construct simple sentence and progress to another level. Nevertheless, if we look back again to the annals of GTM, GTM only teaches students how to memorize words and its meaning. But overall, grammar is still the main part in learning dialect. In primary college, the consumption of textbooks, worksheets and work out books is common in the learning method. When the pupils happen to be reaching intermediate level, cassettes and video tapes are introduced to help make the learning process even more interesting. However, these materials lack the capability to nurture oral communication skills due to the insufficient interactivity (Faridah, 2004). In other words, many teachers are even more enthusiastic about training students how exactly to read and write well furthermore to teaching students to master the grammar component of the language.
In conclusion, every procedure has its own strength and weaknesses. It is determined by how teachers apply it in the learning and teaching process. So as to motivate students to boost their English, teachers have to understand how they perfect participial phrase truly learn and adopt more desirable approaches .